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Citation Help

Manuals and Style Guides
How To Cite: Citation Examples:

Style Guides

How Do I Cite This Article?
How Do I Cite This Article?

There are a variety of popular styles for citing articles in a bibliography, including: MLA, APA, NLM, Vancouver, and others. Each style varies, so be sure that you are aware of the citation style that is preferred by your instructors and department. Please click on the style manuals below to see examples of each style.

These style manuals, among others, are available at the Alumni Medical Library:

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Citing the Web
Citing the Web

There are a variety of popular styles for citing web pages in a bibliography, including: MLA, APA, NLM, Vancouver, and others. Each style varies, so be sure that you are aware of the citation style preferred by your instructors and department. Please click on the style manuals below to see examples of each style.

These style manuals, among others, are available at the Alumni Medical Library:

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Citing Books
Citing Books

There are a variety of popular styles for citing books, both print and electronic, in a bibliography, including: MLA, APA, NLM, Vancouver, and many others. Each style varies, so be sure that you know which citation style your instructor or department prefers. Also if you would like assistance with your references, please do not hesitate to contact the reference desk.

Please click on the style manuals below to see examples of each style.

These style manuals, among others, are available at the Alumni Medical Library:

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American Psychological Association (APA) Citation Style
American Psychological Association Citation Style

APA citation style for books with an author(s)

A single author:

Lugalla, J.B. (2003). Poverty, AIDS, and street children in East Africa. Lewiston, NY: Mellen Press.

Two or more authors, but less than six:

Davies, M.M., & Lloyd, D. (2003). Baby language. London: Unwin Paperbacks.

More than six authors:

Howard, A.J., Fine, J., Howard, P.A., Curley, H.G., Moe, J.D., Larry, K., et al. (2005). Breaking the funny bone. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

APA citation style for books with an editor(s)

Brunton, L.B., Lazo, J.S., & Parker, K.L. (Eds.). (2005) Goodman & Gilman's the pharmacological basis of therapeutics. (11th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

APA citation style for books without an author/editor:

Physicians' desk reference. (58th ed.). (2004). Montvale, NJ: Thomson PDR.

APA citation style for a book chapter:

O'Brien, C. (2005) Drug addiction and drug abuse. In L.B. Brunton, J.S Lazo, & K.L. Parker (Eds.), Goodman & Gilman's The pharmacological basis of therapeutics. (11th ed., pp.607-629). New York: McGraw-Hill.

STAT!REF(as suggested by its publishers)

STAT!-Ref book chapter:

Falk, E. & Fuster, Y. (2007). Atherogenesis and its determinants. In Hurst's the Heart. Available from http://online.statref.com/document.aspx?.

UP-TO-DATE(as suggested by its publishers)

Cite the UpToDate topic review as a chapter in a book titled UpToDate, edited by Burton D. Rose, published by UpToDate in Waltham, MA. As a CD-ROM or online service, there are no page numbers to cite. Since UpToDate is released every four months, the publication year for any topic review should be the current year.

Marcus, E.N. (2008). Jellyfish stings. In B. Rose (Ed.),UpToDate. Available from http://www.uptodateonline.com.

APA citation style for journal articles:

From print sources:

One author:
Spencer, J.H. (2005). Physician, heal thyself - but not on your own please. Medical Education, 89(5), 548-549.

Two or more authors, but less than six:

Salwachter, A.R., Freischlag, J.A., & Sawyer, R.G. (2005). The training needs and priorities of male and
    female surgeons and their trainees. Journal of the American College of Surgeons, 201(1), 199-205.

More than six authors:

Fukushima, H.A., Cureoglu, S.P., Schachern, P.A., Bresnahan, M.M., Flynn, D.E., Maggio, L.A., et al. (2005). Cochlear changes in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, 133(7), 100-106.

Internet articles based on a print source:

Thorpe, K.E., Florence, C.S., Howard, D.H., & Joski, P.N. (2005). The rising prevalence of treated disease effects in private health insurance spending [Electronic version]. Health Affairs, 5(9), 117-123. Published online June 27, 2005.

A journal article from a database:

Manning, L.A. (2006). When in doubt ask a librarian. Journal of Medical Librarianship, 43(11), 303-305. Retrieved February 9, 2006, from Medline database.

Cochrane Systematic Review:

Ramaratnam, S., & Sridharan, K. (2000). Yoga for epilepsy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2000(3), Article CD001524. Retrieved March 28, 2008 from PubMed.

(Note: when CD number is not given, leave out the "Article CDxxxxx" part of the citation).

APA citation style for Websites:

National Cancer Institute. Underlying mortality data provided by National Center for Health Statistics.(n.d).Retrieved September 20, 2005, from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/.

(Note: use n.d. when a publication date is not available)

Remember if you have any questions please feel free to contact a reference librarian or to consult the print Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.

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American Medical Association (AMA) Citation Style
American Medical Association Citation Style

AMA citation style for books with an author(s)

A single author:

Lugalla JB. Poverty, AIDS, and Street Children in East Africa. Lewiston, NY: Mellen Press; 2003.

Two or more authors, but less than six:
Rip PJ, Tear LK. Modern Conventions In Stitches. 9th ed. Cambridge, MA: Suture Books; 2005.

More than six authors:

Greg AM, Marshall KC, Peters NH, et al. Raising Large Families. San Francisco, CA: Brady Limited; 2006.

AMA citation style for books with an editor(s)

Brunton LB, Lazo JS, Parker KL, eds. Goodman & Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 11th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2005.

AMA citation style for books without an author/editor:

Physicians' Desk Reference. 58th ed. Montvale, NJ: Thomson PDR; 2004.

AMA citation style for a book chapter:

O'Brien C. Drug addiction and drug abuse. In: Brunton LB, Lazo JS, Parker KL, eds. Goodman & Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 11th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2005: 607-629.

STAT!REF (as suggested by its publishers):

STAT!-Ref book chapter:

Falk, E. & Fuster, "Atherogenesis and its determinants." Hurst's the Heart, http://online.statref.com/document.aspx?DocID=1030 &StartDoc=1030&EndDoc=1346&FxID= 67&offset=7&level=1&State= False&Local=True&SessionID= 17D9D7HKSOYVRVJL& [Date accessed: 2005 Sept. 20] In STAT!Ref Online Electronic Medical Library [online database]. Jackson, WY, Teton Data Systems, 2004.

UP-TO-DATE (as suggested by its publishers):

Cite the UpToDate topic review as a chapter in a book titled UpToDate, edited by Burton D. Rose, published by UpToDate in Waltham, MA. As a CD-ROM or online service, there are no page numbers to cite. Since UpToDate is released every four months, the publication year for any topic review should be the current year.

Marcus, EN. Jellyfish stings. In: UpToDate, Rose, BD (Ed), UpToDate, Waltham, MA, 2005.

Nieman, LK, Kovacs, WJ. Pharmacological use of glucocorticoids. In: UpToDate, Rose, BD (Ed), UpToDate, Waltham, MA, 2005.

AMA citation style for journal articles:

From print sources:

One author:
Spencer J. Physician, heal thyself - but not on your own please. Med Educ. 2005; 89: 548-549.

Two or more authors, but less than six:
Salwachter AR, Freischlag JA, Sawyer RG, Sanfey HA. The training needs and priorities of male and
    female surgeons and their trainees. J Am Coll Surg. 2005; 201: 199-205.

More than six authors:
Fukushima H, Cureoglu S, Schachern P, et al. Cochlear changes in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.    Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2005; 133: 100-6.

From an electronic source:

Michaels, MP, Patrickson, GM. Brother and heridity. JAMA. 2005;101:3489-2254. Available from: American Medical Association, Chicago, Ill. Accessed February 14, 2006.

AMA citation style for Websites:

National Cancer Institute. Underlying mortality data provided by National Center for Health Statistics. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/. Accessibility verified September 20, 2005.

Remember if you have any questions please feel free to contact a reference librarian or to consult the print and electronic editions American Medical Association Manual of Style.




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National Library of Medicine (NLM) Recommended Formats for Bibliographic Citations
National Library of Medicine Recommended Formats for Bibliographic Citations

NLM citation style for books with an author(s)

A single author with first name given:

Lugalla, James B. Poverty, AIDS, and street children in East Africa. Lewiston (NY): Mellen Press; 2003. 416 p.
*Note 416p represents the total number of pages in the book.

A single author with initials only:

Howser, DJ. Dealing with genius. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2006. 32 p.

Two or more authors, but less than four:

Davies, Michelle; Lloyd, Douglas D.; Loew, Francis. Baby language. London: Unwin Paperbacks; 2006. 317 p.

More than three authors:

Howard, Alexander; Fine, Jacob; Howard, Peter A., et al. Breaking the funny bone. Boston (MA): Houghton Mifflin; 2005. 456 p.

NLM citation style for books with an editor(s)

Brunton, Lawrence; Lazo, June; Parker, Karl, editors. Goodman & Gilman's the pharmacological basis of therapeutics. 11th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2006. 1234 p.

NLM citation style for books without an author/editor:

Physicians' desk reference. 58th ed. Montvale (NJ): Thomson PDR; 2005. 3452 p.

NLM citation style for a book chapter:

O'Brien, Crystal. Drug addiction and drug abuse. In: Brunton, Lisa; Lazo, Janice; Parker, Keven, editors. Goodman & Gilman's the pharmacological basis of therapeutics. 11th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2006. p. 1126-29.

STAT!REF (as suggested by its publishers)

STAT!-Ref book chapter:

Falk, E. Fuster, "Atherogenesis and its determinants." Hurst's the Heart,http://online.statref.com/document.aspx?DocID=1030&StartDoc=1030&EndDoc=1346&FxID=67
&offset=7&level=1&State=False&Local=True&SessionID=17D9D7HKSOYVRVJL&
[Date accessed: 2005 Sept. 20] In STAT!Ref Online Electronic Medical Library [online database]. Jackson, WY, Teton Data Systems, 2004.

UP-TO-DATE (as suggested by its publishers)

Cite the UpToDate topic review as a chapter in a book titled UpToDate, edited by Burton D. Rose, published by UpToDate in Waltham, MA. As a CD-ROM or online service, there are no page numbers to cite. Since UpToDate is released every four months, the publication year for any topic review should be the current year.

Marcus, EN. Jellyfish stings. In: UpToDate, Rose, BD (Ed), UpToDate, Waltham, MA, 2005.

Nieman, LK, Kovacs, WJ. Pharmacological use of glucocorticoids. In: UpToDate, Rose, BD (Ed), UpToDate, Waltham, MA, 2005.

NLM citation style for journal articles:

From print sources:

One author:

Spencer, J. Physician, heal thyself - but not on your own please. Medical Education 2005 Feb; 89(2):548-9.

Two or more authors, but less than ten:

Salwachter R, Freischlag J, Sawyer R. The training needs and priorities of male and female surgeons and their trainees. J Am Coll Sur 2003 Apr;201(2):199-205.

More than ten authors:

Fukushima H, Cureoglu S, Schachern, P, Thomas RJ, Jeffery KJ, Harzbecker JH, Maggio LA, Iglesias BR, Manning PG, Oriel KA, et al. Cochlear changes in patients. Otolaryngology 2006 Feb; 133(3):100-6.

Internet articles based on a print source:

Thorpe KE, Florence C, Howard D.The rising prevalence of treated disease effects in private health insurance spending.Health Affairs [Internet]. 2005 [cited 2006 Feb 16]; 4(5):117-123. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=MImg&_imagekey=B6VF9-4HVNGMM-1-1 &_cdi=6005&_user=489277 &_orig=browse&_coverDate=02%2F28%2F2006 &_sk=999559997&view=c &wchp=dGLbVzz-zSkWA &md5=4c04943b8453821a7724332f6963ea61&ie=/sdarticle.pdf

NLM citation style for Websites:

Animal welfare Information Center [Internet]. Beltsvilled (MD): National Agricultural Library; [updated 2005 May 4; cited 2006 Feb 17]. Available from: http://nal.usda.gov.awic

Please note that the NLM makes available its guide to electronic bibliographic formats freely available on the web at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/pubs/formats/internet.pdf

Remember if you have any questions please feel free to contact a reference librarian or to consult the print National Library of Medicine Recommended Formats for Bibliographic Citation.

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RefWorks

Other Citation Management Programs

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EndNote

What is EndNote?

EndNote is a software tool for publishing and managing bibliographies. Researchers, writers and students depend on these products to locate bibliographic data and create bibliographies for curricula vitae, manuscripts, grant proposals, term papers and other publications.

EndNote automates the creation of bibliographies for hundreds of scholarly publications, a tedious and error-prone activity when performed manually. Scholarly publications have their own unique formatting requirements that govern the appearance of bibliographies and citations within the written document. Using these tools, writers save countless hours of typing and interpreting style requirements by simply selecting the publication by name and generating a perfectly formatted document. To change the format for another publication, the user instantly modifies the document by selecting the new publication style. These bibliographic products provide a direct link to hundreds of Internet databases enabling users to drag and drop references directly to their personal libraries.

How to Purchase EndNote

Boston University students, faculty and staff may purchase EndNote at a discounted price from University Computers in Kenmore Square. The discounted price for students is approximately $99. The discounted price for faculty/staff is $179. Others may purchase EndNote by contacting ISI Thompson at http://www.endnote.com/enpurchase.asp

Connection files

EndNote comes shipped with connection files which will allow you to connect to library catalogs and other databases. Connection files can be updated by downloading files from EndNote's Support pages.

Filters

Filters are used to import search results to EndNote. Hundreds of filters come shipped with EndNote; many others are available to download from their site. On occasion there may be a demand for a filter not available from EndNote; when possible, they are obtained from other sources and listed here.

How to Download Citations from Selected Databases into EndNote

BUMC MEDLINEPlus/OVID

Once you have completed your search and checked off the citations you wish to import, scroll down to the RESULTS MANAGER box. Under the heading RESULTS, choose SELECTED RESULTS to import just those citations you have checked off. Under FIELDS choose COMPLETE REFERENCE. From the RESULTS FORMAT heading select DIRECT EXPORT and click SAVE in the ACTION box (far right hand side of the screen).

JSTOR

Follow the instructions on this page to download citations from JSTOR into EndNote. Exporting JSTOR Citations to Bibliographic Management Software.

PubMed

Follow these instructions for downloading citations from PubMed. Developed by the University of Michigan, University Library, Knowledge Navigation Center. Important information from EndNote concerning PubMed.

Using EndNote to search PubMed

EndNote can be used to search PubMed directly, freeing you from potential confusion of importing records from a text file. From the Altman Laboratory at the Emory Vaccine Center.

Web of Science (Science Citation Index, Social Science Citation Index, Arts & Humanities Index)

When your citations are marked, view your marked list. Click the button labeled "Export to Reference Software." EndNote should start automatically and ask into which library you want to import the records.

Tutorials

Library EndNote tutorials, including how to work with PubMed and Ovid

EndNote's Support Site offers an interactive tutorial, tip sheets, and other materials designed to familiarize users with the software.

Other recommended tutorials:

Please note: You can only have one EndNote library on your Palm device at a time. In order to use EndNote with a Palm device, you must have EndNote 8 or above. You will need to have the HotSync manager running during the EndNote installation, and you must choose to install the Palm conduit during the EndNote installation. The first time you perform a Hot Sync after installing the EndNote Palm conduit the EndNote application for the Palm OS will be installed on your Palm device. In addition, Palm desktop must be installed on your computer, and your Palm device must be using Palm OS 4.15.x.

To add the library:

  1. Go to EndNote 8, select the Tools menu and click on Configure Handheld Sync. You will be asked to select an EndNote library you would like to synchronize. Click on the Browse button to select your library.
  2. Click on OK to choose the library to synchronize, then OK again to confirm it.
  3. Perform a Hot Sync to transfer the library to your Palm device. You can now edit the library either on your desktop or on your Palm and the changes will be synchronized during your next Hot Sync.

What About Other Citation Managers?

EndNote is only one of several excellent citation managers available. The following may help you decide which one would be best for you: Bibliography Formatting Software: An Evaluation Template by Francisco Dell'Orso.

Getting More Help With EndNote

Questions about EndNote itself should be directed to ISI ResearchSoft at (510) 559-8592; email mac-endnote@isiresearchsoft.com (for Mac users) or pc-endnote@isiresearchsoft.com (for PC users).

Contact a Librarian

Please contact David Flynn (dflynn@bu.edu or (617) 638-4271) if you have further questions or would like to schedule an appointment. One-on-one tutorial sessions can be arranged with a librarian by request.

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